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    1842 retreat from Kabul

    The 1842 retreat from Kabul (or Massacre of Elphinstone's army) took place during the First Anglo-Afghan War. At the beginning of the conflict, British and East India Company forces had defeated the forces of Afghan Emir Dost Mohammad Barakzai and in 1839 occupied Kabul, restoring the former ruler, Shah Shujah Durrani, as emir. However a deteriorating situation made their position more and more precarious, until an uprising in Kabul forced the then commander, Major General Sir William Elphinstone, to withdraw the garrison. To this end he negotiated an agreement with Wazir Akbar Khan, one of the sons of Dost Mohammad Barakzai, by which his army was to fall back to the British garrison at Jalalabad, more than 90 miles (140 km) away. As the army and its numerous dependents and camp followers began its march, it came under attack from Afghan tribesmen. Many of the column died of exposure, frostbite or starvation or were killed during the fighting.[4]

    Massacre of Elphinstone's armyPart of the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1839–1842The Last Stand, by William Barnes Wollen (1898).jpg
    An 1898 depiction of the last stand of survivors of Her Majesty's 44th Foot at GandamakDate6–13 January 1842Location

    Kabul–Jalalabad Road, near GandamakAfghanistan

    ResultAfghan victoryBelligerents Emirate of Afghanistan

     United Kingdom

    Commanders and leadersWazir Akbar KhanWilliam Elphinstone (POW)StrengthUnknown but a British source states possibly up to 30,000[1]4,500 regular troops (700 British and 3,800 Indian)[2][3] and approximately 14,000 civilians (workers, family members and camp followers)[2]Casualties and lossesUnknown~approximately 16,500 soldiers and civilians killed, missing, or captured

    The Afghans launched numerous attacks against the column as it made slow progress through the winter snows of the Hindu Kush. In total the British army lost 4,500 troops, along with about 12,000 civilians: the latter comprising both the families of Indian and British soldiers, plus workmen, servants and other Indian camp-followers. The final stand was made just outside a village called Gandamak on 13 January.[5]

    Out of more than 16,000 people from the column commanded by Elphinstone, only one European (Assistant Surgeon William Brydon) and a few Indian sepoys reached Jalalabad. Over one hundred British prisoners and civilian hostages were later released.[6][7] Around 2,000 of the Indians, many of whom were maimed by frostbite, survived and returned to Kabul to exist by begging or to be sold into slavery. Some at least returned to India after another British invasion of Kabul several months later, but others remained behind in Afghanistan.[8]

    In 2013, a writer for The Economist called the retreat "the worst British military disaster until the fall of Singapore exactly a century later."[9]



    BackgroundEditMain article: First Anglo-Afghan War

    In 1838 the British East India Company feared an increased Russian influence in Afghanistan after Dost Mohammad Barakzai had seized power from former ruler Shuja Shah Durrani in 1834. Dost Mohammad had rejected earlier overtures from Russia, but after Lord Auckland, the Governor-General of India, tried to force Afghan foreign policy under British guidance, he renewed his relationship with the Russians. Lord Auckland followed the counsel of his adviser William Hay Macnaghten to support Shuja Shah, dismissing the advice of Alexander Burnes that Dost Mohammad should be supported, and resolved to seek a military solution. He began to assemble his forces in late 1838.

    The army, under the command of General Sir Willoughby Cotton, with Macnaghten as his chief adviser, consisted of 20,000 soldiers and were accompanied by 38,000 civilian camp followers (craftsmen, stretcher bearers, cooks, servants, barbers, tailors, armourers, cameleers, etc., as well as families of both Indian and British soldiers). In March 1839 they crossed the Bolan Pass and began their march to Kabul. They advanced through rough terrain, crossing deserts and mountain passes at a height of 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) but made good progress and took Kandahar on 25 April. They also captured the until-then impregnable fortress of Ghazni on 22 July in a surprise attack, losing 200 men killed and wounded while the Afghans lost nearly 500 men killed and 1,600 taken prisoner, with an unknown number wounded.[10] An Afghan had betrayed his sovereign and the British troops managed to blow one city gate and marched into the city in a euphoric mood. The ample supplies acquired in Ghazni considerably aided the further advance, which otherwise would have been difficult.

    Dost Mohammad fled and sought refuge in the wilds of the Hindu Kush. Kabul fell without a fight on 6 August 1839. Shuja Shah returned and was proclaimed emir by the British. He established a court in the fortress of Bala Hissar above Kabul.

    More than a year later, Dost Mohammad surrendered to Macnaghten on 4 November 1840 and was exiled to India.


    Learn more

    This section does not cite any sources(January 2017)

    General William Elphinstone, who was given command of British forces in Afghanistan in 1841

    In August 1839, the British refrained from occupying Kabul's citadel, instead establishing their military cantonments 1.5 miles (2.4 km) outside Kabul. This decision, made on diplomatic grounds, would prove to be a grave military error, as the garrison was sited in a defensively weak position.

    As political agent and envoy at the court of Shuja Shah, Macnaghten became a leader of British society in Kabul. The city was described at the time as clean and pleasant with many spacious wooden houses surrounded by well-kept gardens. The occupiers enjoyed themselves arranging cricket matches, horse races and hunting parties. In the evenings amateur dramatics were staged by East India Company officers and their wives. Performances included Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. It was considered a special honour to be invited to evening soirées hosted by Lady Florentia Sale, the wife of Brigadier-General Robert Henry Sale. Such social gatherings often saw the serving of salmon and stew with madeira wineport wine and champagne. Under these conditions, many of the East India Company troops were sent back to their garrisons in India.

    While the British enjoyed this lifestyle, some Afghans chafed under occupation by a foreign power. Britain had replaced Dost Mohammad, a (relatively) popular ruler, with Shuja Shah, a weak puppet, who was seen as much more cruel and vindictive to his enemies than his predecessor. In 1840, the son of Dost Mohammad, Wazir Akbar Khan, began assembling allies amongst the tribesmen in the rural areas where British influence was weakest. He initiated a guerrilla war that kept the East India Company troops permanently on the move.

    The efforts to control Afghanistan were further weakened by the British government in India. Dismayed at the costs of maintaining the large garrison in Kabul, it discontinued the periodic subsidies (essentially bribes) that had been paid to the various tribes in the region around Kabul and the Khyber Pass to keep the peace. Once these ended, the tribes saw no more reason to remain loyal to the British-supported regime. Macnaghten dismissed warnings from his officers, writing to his superiors in India that "this is the usual state of Afghan society". As the spring and summer of 1841 progressed, British freedom of movement around Kabul became increasingly restricted.

    Despite this ominous turn of events, Sir Willoughby Cotton was replaced as commander of the remaining British troops by Sir William Elphinstone, who was ill at the time and initially unwilling to accept the appointment. The 59-year-old Elphinstone had entered the British army in 1804. He was made a Companion of the Bath for leading the 33rd Regiment of Foot at the Battle of Waterloo. By 1825 he had been promoted to colonel and then to major-general in 1837. Although Elphinstone was a man of high birth and perfect manners, his colleague and contemporary General William Nott regarded him as "the most incompetent soldier who ever became general".

    In the autumn of 1841 Brigadier-General Robert Henry Sale and his brigade was recalled to Jalalabad, which was on the military line of communication between Kabul and Peshawar. He left his wife, Lady Sale, behind in the British cantonments in Kabul.

    Afghan uprisingEdit

    Wazir Akbar Khan, son of deposed Afghan leader, Dost Mohammad Barakzai.

    On 2 November 1841, Akbar Khan proclaimed a general revolt and the citizens of Kabul quickly followed suit. They stormed the house of Sir Alexander Burnes, one of the senior British political officers, and killed him and his staff. Both Elphinstone and Macnaghten were caught by surprise. By now the East India Company only had 4,500 men in and around Kabul, of which 690 were Europeans. But as Elphinstone took no action in response to the killing of Burnes, it only encouraged further revolt. On 9 November the emboldened Afghans stormed a poorly defended supply fort inside Kabul.

    On 23 November, Afghan forces occupied a hill overlooking the British cantonments and began bombarding the camp with two guns. A British force sallied out to drive them away but the Afghans inflicted heavy casualties firing jezails at long range from the high ground. The East India troops fled leaving behind 300 wounded to be killed. Morale was now a serious issue for the British force in Kabul.[11] Elphinstone called for reinforcements from Major General Nott in Kandahar but they turned back when they found the mountain passes blocked by heavy snow.

    Macnaghten, realising their desperate situation, tried to negotiate an agreement with Akbar Khan for the withdrawal of the troops and the 12,000 British and Indian civilians still at Kabul. On 23 December, Afghan leaders invited Macnaghten for tea to discuss the situation. However, at the moment the British delegation dismounted from their horses they were seized and Macnaghten and an aide were slain by armed men. Later Macnaghten's body was mutilated and dragged through the streets of Kabul.[12] The cavalry escort which was supposed to protect the British diplomats had been delayed and had not joined them. Two other British officers who had been part of Macnaghten's party were subsequently released. Elphinstone had already partly lost command of his troops as his authority continued to diminish.

    To the dismay of his officers, Elphinstone ignored the killing of a British representative and took no punitive action. Major Eldred Pottinger succeeded Macnaghten as envoy to the Afghan court. On 1 January 1842, Elphinstone agreed to Akbar Khan's terms which contained some unfavourable conditions. For example, all gunpowder reserves had to be handed over, along with the newest muskets and most of the cannon. However, in return Akbar Khan promised a safe passage from Kabul for all foreign troops and civilians, amongst them children, women and the elderly. The withdrawal, which would begin on 6 January, involved crossing the snow-covered mountains of the Hindu Kush descending to Jalalabad, 90 miles (140 km) away.

    Elphinstone's armyEdit

    Elphinstone commanded a column consisting of one British infantry battalion (the 44th Regiment of Foot), three regiments of regular Bengal Native Infantry (the 5th, 37th and 54th BNI), one regiment of Shah Shujah's Levy (a British-subsidised force of Indian troops recruited for Afghan service), Anderson's Irregular Horse, the 5th Bengal Light Cavalry and six guns of the Bengal Horse Artillery (with sappers).[13] In total, there were 700 British and 3,800 Indian troops.[14] The camp followers, Indian and British families, their servants and civilian workers, numbered approximately 14,000.[2]

    Retreat and massacreEdit

    A 1909 illustration by Arthur David McCormick depicting British troops trying to fight their way through the pass.

    At first light on 6 January Elphinstone's column began to slowly move out of Kabul leaving Shuja Shah Durrani and his followers to their fate. As Akbar Khan had guaranteed safety to all concerned, the sick, wounded and infirm were also left behind. However once the rearguard finally left the cantonments, Afghans quickly moved in and began firing at the retreating troops from the walls while setting fire to the garrison buildings, killing all those left behind.[15]

    On leaving the city, Elphinstone discovered that the escort promised by Akbar Khan had not materialised, nor had the food and fuel to help with the crossing of the Hindu Kush in winter.[16] Major Eldred Pottinger pleaded with the sick British commander to turn back to Kabul as they still had time to take refuge in the fortress of Bala Hissar. But Elphinstone said there would be no turning back and they would proceed to Jalalabad.[17] The column of 16,000 soldiers and civilians was now at the mercy of the Afghan tribes.

    By the second day, sniping from the surrounding hills was taking its toll on the slow-moving column. Despite being well armed, the troops' progress was being hindered by the terrified civilians and camp followers. Small skirmishes were frequent. The Afghans succeeded in capturing some of the column's artillery while forcing the British to spike two of their three remaining pieces. In just 24 hours the column now had only one small gun and two heavier cannons left. Later that afternoon, Akbar Khan met Elphinstone, feigning ignorance to any treachery on his part. He told the British that he had been unable to provide the agreed escort because they had left their cantonments earlier than expected. Akbar Khan then asked Elphinstone to wait while he negotiated the column's safe passage with the Afghan chiefs who commanded Khord-Kabul pass 15 miles (24 km) from Kabul. Despite what had already occurred, the British commander agreed to the terms and waited. He also agreed to hand over three more European hostages to Akbar Khan.[18]

    Instead of hurrying forward, Elphinstone had moved only 6 miles (9.7 km) from Kabul. By now efforts to maintain military cohesion had also begun to fail. When the column entered the narrow four mile pass the next day, they were shot at from all sides by Ghilzais armed with captured British muskets and their traditional jezails. It was now apparent Akbar Khan had not been negotiating their safe passage; it was actually a ruse to give the Afghans more time to get into position for an ambush. Throughout the third day, the column laboured through the pass. Once the main body had moved through, the Afghans left their positions to massacre the stragglers and the wounded. By the evening of 9 January, the column had only moved 25 miles (40 km) but already 3,000 people had died. Many had been killed in the fighting, but some had frozen to death or taken their own lives. A written report by Elphinstone recorded that most of the sepoys had by this stage lost fingers or toes in the freezing conditions, and that their snow-encrusted muskets had become unusable.[19]

    By the fourth day, a few hundred native soldiers deserted and tried to return to Kabul, but they were all either killed or enslaved.[20] By now Elphinstone, who had ceased giving orders, sat silently on his horse. On the evening of 9 January, Lady Sale, along with the wives and children of both British and Indian officers, and their retinues, accepted Akbar Khan's assurances of protection. Despite deep mistrust, the group was taken into the custody of Akbar's men. Once they were hostages, all the Indian servants and sepoy wives were murdered.

    By the evening of 11 January, the army had been reduced to 200 men. The small rearguard was led by Brigadier-General John Shelton who, for the first time in the retreat, showed his competence and led a fierce resistance against the Afghans. As the surviving troops lay besieged in a small ruined mud-walled enclosure in Jagadalak, Akbar Khan's envoys returned and persuaded Elphinstone and his second in command, Shelton, to accompany them for negotiations. Akbar Khan brought the two officers to his camp and provided them with dinner. The reasons for his hospitality soon became clear however and both officers were refused permission to return to their men. Shelton became furious and demanded the right as an officer and soldier to return to lead his men and die fighting.[21]

    On 12 January, the column, having lost their commander and over 12,000 casualties, decided that their only hope was to wait till night and press on in the dark. The remaining troops, now led by Brigadier-General Thomas John Anquetil, found their path blocked by a formidable thorny barrier of 'prickly holly oak, well twisted together, about six feet high' which had been erected across the narrowest part of the valley. Most of the men who attempted to scale the barrier were shot down before they could reach the other side.[21] All discipline amongst the remainder of the men who were trapped by the barrier now ended and the Afghans closed in to finish them off. The few remaining men who had managed to scale the barrier began a desperate gallop towards Jalalabad but many were slaughtered in a melee just after reaching the other side of the barrier.[22]


    The Grove and Valley of Jugdulluk where Elphinstone's Army made its last stand in the calamitous retreat; January 1842. As drawn on the spot by James Rattray.

    The biggest single surviving group of men, consisting of 20 officers and 45 European soldiers, mostly infantry from the 44th Regiment of Foot, tried to press on but found themselves surrounded on a snowy hillock near the village of Gandamak. With only 20 working muskets and two shots per weapon, the troops refused to surrender. A British sergeant is said to have cried "not bloody likely!" when the Afghans tried to persuade the soldiers they would spare their lives. Sniping then began, followed by a series of rushes; soon the hillock was overrun by tribesmen. An officer named Captain Souter was mistaken by the Afghans as a high-ranking officer because they thought he was wearing a general's yellow waistcoat. In fact the officer had wrapped the regimental colours of the 44th Foot around his body. He was dragged into captivity along with a sergeant named Fair and seven privates. The remaining troops were killed.[23] Another group of fifteen mounted officers managed to reach as far as the village of Fattehabad but ten were killed while sitting down to accept breakfast from the villagers, four were shot from the rooftops as they remounted their horses and attempted to flee the village and one was tracked down and beheaded.[24]


    Remnants of an Army by Elizabeth Butler depicting the arrival of assistant surgeon William Brydon at Jalalabad on 13 January 1842.

    On 13 January, a British officer from the 16,000 strong column rode into Jalalabad on a wounded horse (a few sepoys, who had hidden in the mountains, followed in the coming weeks). Assistant Surgeon William Brydon, who was riding a pony taken from a mortally wounded officer after being begged by the man not to let it fall into anyone else's hands, continued on despite him and his pony being severely wounded in several skirmishes with roaming bands of Afghans. On 13 January and now just miles from Jalalabad, Brydon had to fight for his life against a party of Afghan horsemen and was saved only when he was spotted by a staff officer on the walls of Jalalabad who immediately dispatched rescue riders to ride out and meet the exhausted surgeon. Brydon was asked upon arrival what happened to the army, to which he answered "I am the army". Although part of his skull had been sheared off by a sword, he ultimately survived because he had insulated his hat with a magazine which deflected the blow. Brydon later published a memoir of the death march. The pony he rode was said to have lain down in a stable and never got up. For several nights, lights were raised on the gates of Jalalabad and bugles were sounded from the walls in the hope of guiding any further survivors to safety.[6]

    AftermathEditFurther information: Kabul Expedition (1842)

    The annihilation left Britain and India in shock and the Governor General, Lord Auckland, suffered an apparent stroke[25] upon hearing the news. In the autumn of 1842, an "Army of Retribution" led by Sir George Pollock, with William Nott and Robert Sale commanding divisions, leveled the great bazaar and all the larger buildings of Kabul.[26] Sale personally rescued his wife Lady Sale and some other hostages from the hands of Wazir Akbar Khan. However, the slaughter of an army by Afghan tribesmen was humiliating for the British authorities in India.

    Of the British prisoners, 32 officers, over 50 soldiers, 21 children and 12 women survived to be released in September 1842. An unknown number of sepoys and other Indian prisoners were sold into slavery in Kabul or kept as captives in mountain villages.[27] One sepoy, Havildar Sita Ram, escaped from Afghanistan after 21 months of slavery and rejoined his former regiment at Delhi.[28] Around 2,000 sepoys and camp followers were eventually found in Kabul and brought back to India by General Pollock's army.[29][7]

    The leadership of Elphinstone is seen as a notorious example of how the ineptitude and indecisiveness of a senior officer could compromise the morale and effectiveness of a whole army (though already much depleted). Elphinstone completely failed to lead his soldiers, but fatally exerted enough authority to prevent any of his officers from exercising proper command in his place.

    Historians still debate whether Akbar Khan ordered the massacre, sanctioned it, or was simply unable to prevent it. Some of the British officers and families taken hostage later claimed that Akbar Khan had called out "Spare them!" in Persian, but "Kill them!" in Pashto to the tribesmen.[30] Either way, the British reaction to such an atrocity must have been clear to him. He died near the end of 1847, possibly poisoned by his father Dost Mohammad, who may have feared his ambitions.

    Dost Mohammad remained a British prisoner till the end of 1841 when he was set free by the British authorities who, after they took their revenge on Kabul, had resolved to abandon any attempts to intervene in the internal affairs of Afghanistan. After Shuja Shah was assassinated in April 1842, Dost Mohammad quickly reestablished his authority. He died on 9 June 1863 of natural causes, one of the few Afghan rulers in the past thousand years to do so. Even after the two British invasions of his country, he did not intervene in any manner during the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

    The destruction of several regiments of Indian troops during the retreat inevitably affected the morale of the East India Company's Bengal Army from which these units had been drawn. The reputation for invincibility previously enjoyed by the Company was broken. "Men remembered Kabul," commented a British officer at the outbreak of the great Bengal mutiny fifteen years later.[31]


    German novelist and poet Theodor Fontane in 1858 wrote the ballad Das Trauerspiel von Afghanistan (The Tragedy of Afghanistan).

    British writer George MacDonald Fraser describes this event in the first book of his Flashman Papers series, Flashman.

    Victoria (2017) episode "A Soldier's Daughter" dramatizes Brydon's survival in the retreat. In the show, Queen Victoria responds to the loss of life in the retreat with a speech at the launch of HMS Trafalgar, and by privately meeting and honouring Brydon.[32][33]

    See alsoEdit


    1. ^ First Afghan War - Battle of Kabul and Retreat to Gandamak
    2. a b c Dalrymple 2013, p. 355.
    3. ^ Wilkinson-Latham, Robert (1977). North-West Frontier 1837-1947. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-85045-275-9.
    4. ^ Colley 2010, pp. 349–350.
    5. ^ William Dalrymple (8 May 2010). "The Ghosts of Gandamak"The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
    6. a b Dalrymple 2013, p. 387.
    7. a b Ewans, Martin (2002). Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics. HarperCollins. p. 51ISBN 0060505087.
    8. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 462.
    9. ^ "The first Anglo-Afghan war: Lessons unlearned"The Economist. 26 January 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
    10. ^ "The Battle of Ghuznee". Retrieved 20 February 2013.
    11. ^ Hopkirk 1991, p. 248–250.
    12. ^ Mason, Philip (1986). A Matter of Honour. p. 223. ISBN 0-333-41837-9.
    13. ^ Ram, Subedar Sita. From Sepoy to Subedar. p. 86. ISBN 0-333-45672-6.
    14. ^ Wilkinson-Latham, Robert (1977). North-West Frontier 1837-1947. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-85045-275-9.
    15. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 366.
    16. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 364.
    17. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 359.
    18. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 372.
    19. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 379.
    20. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 369.
    21. a b Dalrymple 2013, p. 380.
    22. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 382.
    23. ^ Terence R. Blackburn. David, The extermination of a British army: the retreat from Cabul, 2008 APH Publishing Corporation. p.121
    24. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 385.
    25. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 390.
    26. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 458–459.
    27. ^ Colley 2010, p. 350.
    28. ^ Sita Ram pages 119–128 "From Sepoy to Subedar", ISBN 0-333-45672-6
    29. ^ Dalrymple 2013, p. 387–388.
    30. ^ Hopkirk 1991, p. 263–264.
    31. ^ Mason, Philip (1974). A Matter of Honour. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 225ISBN 0-333-41837-9.
    32. ^ WETA. "'Victoria' Season 2: "A Soldier's Daughter/The Green-Eyed Monster" Recap"Telly Visions. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
    33. ^ "Season 2, Victoria | History in Images: Victoria Season 2 Episode 1 | Masterpiece | Official Site | PBS"Masterpiece. Retrieved 9 February2019.


    External linksEdit


    Last edited 1 month ago by Dimadick

    Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.

      History may not repeat, but it does rhyme...

      I read Peter Hopkirk's The Great Game before 9/11, including the 1842 debacle. Sometimes History sings, sometimes it reverberates.


      The Pashtun propensity to pummel  retreating capitulates appears as an Easter Egg in the pre Baker St Watson Chronicles.  There is even an identified person upon whom the good Dr. was based...




      The fictional Doctor Watson, companion of Sherlock Holmes, was wounded in the Battle of Maiwand (as described in the opening chapter of A Study in Scarlet). He may have been based upon the 66th regiment's Medical Officer, Surgeon Major Alexander Francis Preston.[10][11]

      The Battle of Maiwand is also mentioned in Jeffery Deaver's short story The Westphalian Ring. The main character, Peter Goodcastle, had served in the Royal Horse Artillery there and had turned to burglary to avenge the shoddy treatment he had suffered on his return to Britain. In the short story, he was arrested by none other than Dr. Watson, but later managed to escape suspicion by outsmarting Sherlock Holmes, so the two men may have already met earlier.

      The battle has also been documented in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's short story The Summer.

      Okay, jollyroger, it seems that you intend to give the product only one star and are not planning on buying it again.


      Not at all.  I was right  the first time...


      Me too.

      Trending commentary on Twitter (allover the western world): "Bring Afghan"

      Also I ran across this clever suggestion:

      They got new savvy P.R. though: Sharia Family Values

      yeah, waaaay savvier than the Mullah Omar iteration:

      Here's their new naivete, mho: "U.S." company?! Give me a break; Zuckerberg his own country! That was a different planet you are talking about.

      Are you going to use the internet or aren't you?

      Bad link


      ? which do you mean? all mine work for me. "Bring Afghan" was a trending phrase on Twitter with lots of people wanting Afghan refugees. Still works. (you will of course get arguments against those pro, natch, as usual.) The tweeted videos should play right on Dag without even going to Twitter.Yours too to your earlier blog post. All work for me, if you have slow internet, you may need to refresh?

      Hmmm...i DO  use an idiosyncratic browser...

      heh, being a lefty you might not find it as funny, but Karl made me laugh:


      IS-K & Taliban not BFFs

      Taliban special forces.@AFP's Wakil Kohsar photographs Taliban Badri special forces fighters at the main gate of Kabul airport on August 31, after the US pulled its troops out of Afghanistan to end a 20-year war - one that started and ended with the hardline Islamists in power

      — AFP News Agency (@AFP) August 31, 2021

      #UPDATE: The Taliban's top spokesman congratulates Afghans on their victory after 20 years of US military intervention.

      "Congratulations to Afghanistan... this victory belongs to us all," Zabihullah Mujahid said from Kabul airport.

      Taliban special forces secure the airport

      — AFP News Agency (@AFP) August 31, 2021

      #BREAKING Taliban want good diplomatic relations with US: spokesman

      — AFP News Agency (@AFP) August 31, 2021

      The US military disabled scores of aircraft and armored vehicles as well as a high-tech rocket defense system at the Kabul airport before it left Monday, a US general said

      — AFP News Agency (@AFP) August 30, 2021

      from four days ago . kinda amazing! surprise

      NEW: Governor Ralph Northam’s office just told me as of 7 am this morning 14,000 Afghan refugees had arrived at Dulles Airport since 12 days ago.
      Nine more flights were scheduled to arrive today, 15 tomorrow.

      — Tom Roussey (@tomroussey7news) August 27, 2021

      Very curious that there was so little coverage of this other withdrawal in 2013-2014 (NOT from what I recall about me and I a fellow moderator at a news site trying to get people interested in Sudan while the Iraq war was hot and heavy. It is simply very hard to interest American news junkies in anything to do with Africa to this day!)

      Clearly, Ms. Shackleford does have an agenda here, to 'splain how the State Dept. works under a sane president. And of course YMMV depending upon what you think of that, you may think of it as "CYA" or "this is the best one can do in such a situation". Whatever the case, worth a read


      p.s. here's the first of many good replies to Shackleford's thread:

      Taliban members escorted Americans to gates at Kabul airport in secret arrangement with US

      By Barbara Starr, CNN Pentagon Correspondent, Updated 1:10 PM EDT, Tue August 31, 2021

      Caveat: anonymous sources. However, Starr's record on those is far better than most; she has lots of experience telling wheat from chaff.

      (CNN)The US military negotiated a secret arrangement with the Taliban that resulted in Taliban members escorting groups of Americans to the gates of the Kabul airport as they sought to escape Afghanistan, according to two defense officials.

      One of the officials also revealed that US special operations forces set up a "secret gate" at the airport and established "call centers" to guide Americans through the evacuation process.

      The officials said Americans were notified to gather at pre-set "muster points" close to the airport where the Taliban would gather the Americans, check their credentials and take them a short distance to a gate manned by American forces who were standing by to let them inside amid huge crowds of Afghans seeking to flee.

      The US troops were able to see the Americans approach with their Taliban escorts in most cases in an attempt to ensure their safety.

      The officials spoke on the condition of anonymity due to the sensitivity of the arrangements, which have not been disclosed until now because the US was concerned about Taliban reaction to any publicity as well as the threat of attacks from ISIS-K if its operatives had realized Americans were being escorted in groups, the officials said.

      Throughout the evacuation, Biden administration officials stressed that the Taliban was cooperating and senior officials stated they had committed to provide "safe passage" for Americans.

      The Taliban escort missions happened "several times a day" according to one of the officials. One of the key muster points was a Ministry of Interior building just outside on of the airport's gates where nearby US forces were readily able to observe the Americans approach. Americans were notified by various messages about where to gather.

      "It worked, it worked beautifully," one official said of the arrangement. As of Monday when the US completed its withdrawal, more than 122,000 people in total had been airlifted from Hamid Karzai International Airport since July and more than 6,000 Americans civilians evacuated. However, 13 Americans service members and more than 170 Afghans were killed in a suicide blast at the airport last week.

      It is not clear if the Taliban who were checking credentials during these efforts turned away any of the Americans. There have been numerous reports that some Americans with passports and US green card holders were turned away from Taliban checkpoints close to the airport [....]

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